The CSM technique provides versatile solutions for various types of temporary and permanent walls, retaining structures and shafts as well as structural foundation piles.
The CSM technique is a cost-effective construction solution for stabilising soils in-situ by mixing the soil with suitable grouts such as a bentonite and/or cement. The method is beneficial in treating acid sulphate soils in the ground, controlling potential soil liquification and the settlement control of a variety of structures.
Stabilised bridging layer
A stabilised bridging layer constructed by Wagstaff Piling is a horizontal soil mixing process using equipment that efficiently and rapidly mixes binders with the soil in horizontal passes, up to a depth of 500mm.
The stabilised bridging layer can be used in combination or independent of other ground improvement methods and has a wide range of applications in civil engineering and building projects
Rotary soil mixed columns
Rotary soil mixing is a deep soil mixing process using rotary drilling methods
and fluid grout injection. The concept is for high speed rotation of small diameter
hollow core drill strings, with a mixing tool that facilitates fluid grout injection.
The mixing tool is sized to suit the column diameter to be formed, and fluid
grout is injected at the mixing head either at low pressure through standard
equipment, or at high pressure through jetting nozzles. Features of the low and
high pressure systems include:
• Columns formed with low grout pressure injection are mechanically mixed soil-
• Column formed with high pressure grouting combine mechanical mixing with
hydraulic cutting and mixing.
Controlled modulus columns
This technique uses a hollow stemmed auger which is rotated into the soil to the
required depth. A cement based slurry is injected, at low pressure through the
auger, to construct a column as the auger is withdrawn. The combined effect of
soil densification and soil reinforcement improves the characteristics of the soil
due to this composite action.
Jet Grouting uses small bore rotary rigs and very high pressure grout injection.
The hollow core drill string provides for injection of two fluids, cementitious
grout and air. The fluids are injected at the drill tip through horizontally
orientated jetting nozzles with very high pressure. The resulting velocity of the
horizontally injected fluids provides energy for hydraulic cutting and erosion of
the soil, and subsequent mixing to form soil-cement columns.
Jet Grouting is used for many applications and soil types, and a wide variety of
strengths can be achieved subject to requirements. Depths of up to 21m can
be achieved using a specialised jet grouting rig with grouting pressures up to
Wagstaff Piling has the capability to undertake permeation grouting projects for a variety of applications using both cement and chemical grouting techniques.
These grouting techniques use low pressure grouting and some typical applications are to reduce the permeability and increase the strength of bund and dam walls and controlling foundation and soft ground settlements in granular soils.
Amphibious access systems
Wagstaff Piling has the capability to undertake ground improvement works and other types of foundation and general construction projects, where providing access for heavy-duty equipment is economically prohibitive or not permitted due to environmental considerations.
The amphibious plant can be set up with ground improvement equipment for variety of different techniques, such as soil mixing or jet or permeating grouting, depending on the projects requirements.
Wick Drains, Vibrocompaction, lime columns, stone columns
These methods improve the soil and its engineering properties to increase its in-situ strength, to control settlements and to improve its performance under cyclic or other transient loads.
The techniques include wick drains, stone columns, sand columns, deep soil mixing, grouting, lime columns, vibrowing, jet grouting and cutter soil mixing.
Wagstaff prides itself on its team work and innovative staff who work together to solve problems large and small.